Mar 19, 2011

Antibacterial drugs in Ayurveda

Antibacterial drugs in Ayurveda
The anti bacterial agents and drugs are of the most important inventions in medical field. As we know that the antibiotics are used to fight any type of infections that are due to bacteria. The antibiotics are the base for the improvement and development of the surgery part of allopathic medicines. There are various medicated liquids and powders derived form minerals as well as the herbs for this purpose in ayurveda. In the surgical text Susruta there are various medicines and processes that are used for postoperative treatment.

Thought, ayurveda don't describe any thing about the antibiotic drugs but they were quite aware of the after effects that may occur due to the microbes. Thus various processes and drugs were used for the antibiotic purpose. Without this the surgical part of Ayurveda wouldn’t have flourished. Thus we can imagine that that unknowingly the ayurveda people were using the precautions against the microbial growth.

The medicated decoctions that were used in the postoperative treatment by Maharishi Susruta was of antibacterial nature. In the same way the treatment for leprosy is also indicative of the antibacterial properties of the herbs and ayurvedic medicines used. Nowadays the antibiotics are classified into various categories. The major success of the modern medicines is dependent upon the antibiotics invention. Each antibiotic is used to treat specific bacteria. In simple words that acts as antidote for the specific bacteria. The treatment is based upon the diagnosis of the microorganism causing infection.

The penicillin was the first antibiotic that was discovered in 1928 by Sir Alexander Fleming for treating the infectious caused in wounds. Further, antibiotics were refined from the penicillin and by the 1950’s a large number of antibiotics were discovered. There are a large number of antibacterial combinations that are used now days. The antibiotics can be classified upon the basis of their chemical composition as well as their mechanism of pharmacological action. Following are the some antibiotics commonly used by the practitioners.

The antibiotic medicines used commonly are B-lactam antibiotics– this group contains, Penicillins (Penicillin G, Amoxicillin, Flucloxacillin) Cephalosporins (Cefoxitin, Cefotaxime) and Carbapenem (Imipenem) and their combinations.

The other group is Macrolides that contains Erythromycin, Azithromycin and Clarithromycin. There is another group of tetracyclins, Fluoroquinolones, Sulphonomides, Aminoglycosides, Imidazoles, Peptides, and Lincosamides

The above mentioned antibiotics are used generally in all systemic aliments caused due to the bacterial activities. The ayurvedic medicines that are used in treating the infectious conditions are generally containing antibacterial activities. For example the Cindamycin antibiotic is used for the treatment of the serious respiratory tract infections, serious skin infections and soft tissue infections.

For the serious respiratory tract infection there are ayurvedic medicines that are containing the herbs and mineral combinations as well. The rason (garlic) is found to have effects as that of Cindamycin). In the same way the combination medicine Sitopaladi Choorna is having anti tubercular action due the presence of certain drugs. Cinnamon, In the same the various combination and single drugs from the ayurveda texts are containing various antibiotic properties and are in use in spite of being the known how they work.

The most famous of all as antibacterial drug from ayurveda is Neem. The herbs, which were used by Susruta for the antibiotic activity, are classified into different categories of drugs.

    * Saalsaradi gana
    * Lakshadi gana ,and more…….

The following medicines are described into above categories.

Extract of Saal, Ajakarna, Khadir, Odumbar, Supari, Bhurjapatra, Meshshringi, Tinish, Shewata Chandan, Shisham, Asan, Dhava, Arjun, Laksha, Aragvadha, Kutza, Ashvamaartawak, katphala, haridra, Nimba, Malti, Trayamana, Chukramarda, Vasa, Gaduchi, Madanphal, Vidanga, Lashun, Shrish, Jatamansi, Guggul Harenu, Vacha, Trivrita, Danti, Gairik, Anjan, Bhallatak, Lodhra, Devdaru, Sarshap, Kampillak, Arka-ksheer, Rasanjana, Kaptiharasa, Indravajava, Palshrasa, Rasana.

Apart from these, there are various mineral preparations that are used for the antibacterial purpose. Some of these are Makshiaka, Gandhakayoga, Parad, Shilajit, Tutthak, Kashish, Manashila, Gairik, Anjanam, Gorochan, Suhaga, and Nilgiri tel.

The madhavasava, khadirarishta, mahatikta ghrita, pancha nimbadi ghrita are some other medicines that are used as antibiotic medicines in case of infections according to ayurveda. The neem is most commonly termed as ayurvedic antibiotic. The neem tree is used in a number of ways as per the disease conditions. It has got multipurpose use from skin rashes to malaria. In the Harotkayadi varga section of drug book of ayurveda priyanighantu neem is described a great medicine for the pitta aggravations and blood purification. Neem is supposed to be a antibacterial, anti-fungal, antiviral and antiseptic drug. It used in treating anything from dandruff to acne, eczema to malaria and cold sores.

All ayurvedic medicines are used in many systemic aliments and they need to be developed and tested as per the antibiotics are tested. The use of herbs and different medical decoctions can be added with the antibiotics as complementary to the medicines. Now days various single herbs are being researched in the light of modern testing parameters to establish their respective antibiotic action on different category of microbes. The haridra is used as antibiotic for skin disease for local and parental uses. In the same way there are various uses of herbs in ayurveda related text.


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