Mar 19, 2011

Principles,Diagnosis & Treatments Of Ayurveda

A system of self-care that originated in India more than 5000 years ago, Ayurveda is becoming very popular all over the world, with hundreds of healers incorporating it into their practices and thousands of people using its well-tried principles and therapies to improve their well-being.
The Vedic word ayurveda has two root words--ayu and veda. Every root word in the Vedic tradition has its own definition--thus, ayu has its own definition and so does veda. Literally and concisely, ayu means "life" and ved means "science." According to this translation, ayurveda means "the science of life." But the Vedic texts expand on these definitions to offer us a more complete understanding, and our ayurvedic expert Vaidya Rama Kant Mishra has explained some of these expanded statements.

Ayu explained

What is the real meaning of ayu or life according to the fundamental principles of ayurveda? Sharirendriya sattwa atma samyogo ayuhu, goes one verse. Sharir means physical body; indriya means senses. Sattwa refers to the combination of mind and heart--overall psychological strength, and atma means soul or spirit. When all of these--body, senses, heart, mind and spirit--are in proper balance and function in a harmonious, coordinated manner, that is true life--"the living body."

Veda explained

Veda means science: not a science that changes its theories and its findings every few years but ageless, eternal knowledge built on siddhantas, fundamental unchanging principles. Veda refers to guided knowledge: it is not just theory, but also a roadmap for how to derive practical benefit from the knowledge.

A longer definition of ayurveda

Another longer definition of ayurveda goes: ayurhitahitamvyadhe nidaanamshamanam thathaa vidyate yatra vidhwadhihi tatra ayurveda uchyate. This verse takes us to a deeper level to understand what ayurveda is.

Ayurveda provides us with a complete understanding of what is life-sustaining and what is not, not just for the physical body, but also our mind, heart, senses and spirit. This includes descriptions of the kind of diet, lifestyle and behavior that is optimal for well-being, the ideal environment, and the herbal rasayanas that are good or bad for each of these aspects of health. There is great detail on each of these modalities--what to eat, when to eat and how to eat are a part of dietary recommendations, for example. The texts also include recommendations for nurturing relationships and living as part of the human community.

If an individual does not have this knowledge or has the knowledge but does not implement the knowledge, then, say the texts, the person becomes susceptible to imbalance and disorders


According to ayurvedic philosophy an individual bundle of `spirit’, desirious of expressing itself, uses subjective consciousness or Satwa to manifest sense organs and a mind. Spirit and mind then project themselves into a physical body, created from the five (Pancha) great (maha) eternal elements (bhutas) – together called the Panchamahabhutas – which arise from Tamas. The sense organs then using Rajas to project from the body into the external world to experience their objects. The body becoming the mind’s vehicle, its physical instrument for sense gratification.

The Bhutas combine into "tridoshas" or bioenergetic forces that govern and determine our health or physical condition. While the three gunas (Rajas or activity, Tamas or inertia and Satwa, which balances the first two) or psychic forces determine our mental and spiritual health. Ayurveda is thus a holistic system o


The following are some of the principle theories and practices of Ayurveda.

Ayurveda is divided into eight parts. Hence it is also known as Ashtanga ayurveda.
These are as follows: Kaya, Bal, Graha, Urdhwa, Shalya, Dhanstra, Jara, Vrishan.
1. Kaya: The part of ayurveda which mainly related with diseases related with body, related with digestion.
2.Bala: It is related with the paediatric age group. It is the treatment for the proper growth and diseases of children.
3.Graha: It deals with stars and planets and other mental disorders.
4.Urdhwa: The diseases of upper part of the body above the neck. This part is also known as Shalakyatantra. In this part, disorders of ear, nose, throat, eyes, and oral cavity are considered.
5.Shalya: This is surgical branch of Ayurveda which is well developed by Sushrut.
6.Dhanstra: It is related to the tooth where animal bites, poisoning and its treatment is considered.
7.Jara: It is the branch related to geriatrics. It deals with treatment to avoid old age.
8.Vrushya: It is the branch related with healthy sex life and treatment related to complaints about intercourse etc.
Prakruti: At the time of conception, the particular dosha dominating is the prakruti of that individual.According to individuals prakruti, he or she is prone to some types of disease. To cure those disorders, some hints related to day to day life "dincharya" and seasonal behavior "Rutucharya"are given.
Panch Mahabhoot Siddhanta: The whole body is considered to be made up of five basic elements such as Prithvi, Aap, Tepa, Vayu and Aakash .When there is disturbance in dosha-dhatu-mala, the individual suffers from disease. Hence they should be treated accordingly.
The treatment part includes Shodhan and Shaman. In Shodhan, the doshas are expelled out of the body with the help of medicines and in Shaman , doshas are suppressed in the body. Shodhan includes five ways of cleansing named as Pancha karma. It includes;
Vaman: emesis,
Virechan: purgation,
Nasya: medicine administered by nostrils.
Raktamokshan: letting out blood,
Basti: medicated material administered through anus.
Prakruti - The Unique Genetic Code of an Individual
Everyone knows that there are no two fingerprints alike. No two voice modulations and no two genetic codes are exactly alike. What makes anyone think we all have the same liver, lungs, kidneys, or anything else the same as the next person. Therefore to propose that we all eat the same foods, take the same drugs when we are ill, or perform the same exercise is more than ludicrous. It is unscientific! Ayurveda uses a system of historical analysis and physical examination done almost entirely by observation (with the exception of pulse reading), to ascertain one's original nature and current imbalances.
A diet and health plan are given to the individual according to the needs to correct the imbalance. The basis for all other concepts in Ayurveda is Sankhya (the analytical study of the elements that comprise the universe). Although the modern physicist would delineate well over one hundred elements, Sankhya states there are twenty-four, of which five are the foundation of the gross world: Earth, Water, Fire, Air and Ether.
These five elements, when joined in different combinations, make up the three "doshas" or "biological modes" which are the "Prakruti" or nature of an individual and the nature of all things.
The combination of air and ether gives us Vata or the Kinetic Biological Mode. Vata is that which is electric in the body and causes all movement in and out of the system (breathing, urination, defecation, menstruation, etc.)
The combination of fire and water gives us Pitta or the Transformative Biological Mode. Pitta is that which mutates or transforms the outside elements of the macrocosm into the inside elements of the body (the microcosm). Pitta governs the digestion of physical, mental, and emotional elements.
Finally, the combination of earth and water gives us Kapha or the Structive Biological mode. Kapha is that which makes for both lubrication (mucus, synovial fluid) and structure (bones, muscles, fat, joints, etc).


Tones muscle, improves circulation. Balances Vata
Obesity, Especially for Diabetic Gangrene etc.
Rejuvenate the entire body, esp. neuromuscular system. Balances Vata. Rheumatic diseases like Arthritis, Paralysis, Hemiplegia, Epilepsy, Paralysis-Agitanus and Sexual weakness.
Rejuvenates all tissues. Balances Vata
Weight loss, Rheumatism, Pain in the Joints, Emaciation of limbs, High blood pressure, Cholesterol and certain kinds of skin diseases.
Deep relaxation. Brain rejuvenation. Balances Vata
Insomnia, Vata aggravation, Stress related disorders, dermatitis.
Brain and neuromuscular tonic. Whole body tonic.
Epilepsy, Facial paralysis, Dryness of nostrils, mouth and throat, Severe headaches, and other Vata originated diseases.
Balances Vata. Tonic. Arthritis, Paralysis, Hemiplegia, Numbness, Gastric complaints associated with Rheumatism and constant constipation
Loose weight, improve circulation. Hemiplegia, Paralysis, Obesity and certain Rheumatic ailments
Sinusitis, recurrent respiratory problems.Headaches, Brain disorders, some types of skin disease.
Internal rejuvenation. Improves immunity. Aids cleansing. Also used in Osteoarthritis, Psoriasis, Leukemia etc.
Anti inflammatory tonic. Gentle, deep cleansing. Osteoarthritis, arthritis with swelling, spondylitis, sports injuries etc.
Female reproductive disorders. Endometriosis, cysts and fibroids, tumors, infertility.
Strong and flexible back. Disc prolapse, Back pain and spinal disorders.
Tones respiratory system and heart. Asthma, other respiratory problems hearth diseases and muscular chest pain
Tones facial nerves and muscles. Facial paralysis, speech disorders and other nervous disorders of the face.
Improves sleep. Strengthens eyesight. ENT problems, insomnia, mi

1. Neti (nasal cleansing):
Jala neti (salt water flushing of the sinuses).
Sutra neti (nasal cleaning with string).

2. Dhauti (washing the GI tract).
Teeth, tongue, eyes, ears and forehead.
Agnisara Dhauti.
Vamana Dhauti (vomiting salt water).
Vastra Dhauti (washing with a cloth).
Varisara Dhauti (washing with water for purgation).

3. Basti (enema).
4. Trataka (forehead wash, gazing into a candle flame).
5. Nauli (intestinal washing, abdominal rolling).
6. Kapala Bhati (skull shining).

The Ayurvedic method for cleansing and rejuvenation is known as panchakarma (pancha karma), or five cleansing actions. This program is usually done for a week or two, but can also be done for longer periods depending on the case. The five actions of this method are:

1. Basti (Enema).
2. Nasya (Nasal application of herbs and herbal oils).
3. Vamana (Therapeutic vomiting).
4. Virechana (Purgation).
5. Rakta Moksha (Blood letting).

It is obvious that Ayurveda and yoga not only complement each other. Both sciences actually embrace each other as they share similarities and fundamental principles on many levels. Ayurveda and yoga should go hand in hand if we want to achieve optimal health, peace, and longevity.

Ayurveda with Meditation

Meditation is a continuous flow of perception or thought, just like the flow of water in a river." A practice wherein there is constant observation of the mind, meditation brings awareness, harmony and natural order into life. It helps you dig deep into your inner self to discover the wisdom and tranquility that lie within.

Principles of Meditation

The basic points to be kept in mind in practicing meditation are :

*Have a special place and specific time for meditation. Try doing it daily.
*Choose a time when your mind is not clouded with worries.
*Sit up straight with your back, neck and head in one line. Facing north or east.
*Condition your mind such so as to remain quiet for the duration of your meditation session.

Regulate your breathing. Start with 5 minutes of deep breathing. Then gradually slow it down.
*Follow a rhythmic breathing pattern - inhale and exhale.
*Initially let your mind wander. It grows more restless if you force to concentrate.
*Then slowly bring it to rest on the focal point of your choice.
*Hold your object of concentration at this focal point throughout your session.
*Meditation happens when you reach a state of pure thought. Even while retaining an awareness of duel self.
Followed diligently you will soon be able to attain a super-conscious state.
Tips on Concentration

At the outset, it is hard to keep your attention to keep focussed on one object.
*So it is better to start off by limiting your field of concentration to a category of objects.
*Choose your objects with care e.g. any four flowers, fruits, trees...etc. You must feel at ease with what you choose.
*After concentrating on one, you can move on to the next, if & when your mind starts wandering.

This style of meditative exercise will help you control your mind down to a finer focus, teaching you the principle of single point concentration

Rejuvenates all tissues. Balances Vata

Weight loss, Rheumatism, Pain in the Joints, Emaciation of limbs, High blood pressure, Cholesterol and certain kinds of skin diseases.
Deep relaxation. Brain rejuvenation. Balances Vata
Insomnia, Vata aggravation, Stress related disorders, dermatitis.
Brain and neuromuscular tonic. Whole body tonic.
Epilepsy, Facial paralysis, Dryness of nostrils, mouth and throat, Severe headaches, and other Vata originated diseases.
Balances Vata. Tonic. Arthritis, Paralysis, Hemiplegia, Numbness, Gastric complaints associated with Rheumatism and constant constipation
Loose weight, improve circulation. Hemiplegia, Paralysis, Obesity and certain Rheumatic ailments
Sinusitis, recurrent respiratory problems.Headaches, Brain disorders, some types of skin disease.
Internal rejuvenation. Improves immunity. Aids cleansing. Also used in Osteoarthritis, Psoriasis, Leukemia etc.

Anti inflammatory tonic. Gentle, deep cleansing. Osteoarthritis, arthritis with swelling, spondylitis, sports injuries etc.
Female reproductive disorders. Endometriosis, cysts and fibroids, tumors, infertility.
Strong and flexible back. Disc prolapse, Back pain and spinal disorders.
Tones respiratory system and heart. Asthma, other respiratory problems hearth diseases and muscular chest pain
Tones facial nerves and muscles. Facial paralysis, speech disorders and other nervous disorders of the face.
Improves sleep. Strengthens eyesight. ENT problems, insomnia, mi


Indian medicine names three main causes of disease – 'overuse', 'disuse' or 'misuse’ of faculties; 'errors in judgement'; and influence of seasonal changes. According to Ayurveda all human diseases can be classified into the seven broad categories, namely :
1. Genetic (Adibalapravritta)

*Consists of ailments as obstinate skin diseases, hemorrhoids, diabetes, tuberculosis and asthma that arise primarily due to defects in the sperm (sukra) of the father – when it is called pitrija or the ovum (sonita) of the mother – when it is termed matrja.
*Undigested food, abnormal behaviour, addiction of any type and stressful situations affect the reproductive elements of both the male and female, resulting in a defective foetus.
2. Congenital (Janmabalapravritta)

*Caused essentially due to nutritional disorder (rasakrita) and unfulfilled cravings of the mother during pregnancy (dauhrdya)
*If diet and / or conduct of the mother aggravates vata, the foetus might end up with deformities as kyphosis (hunchback), blindness and dwarfism; increased pitta may cause alopecia and yellowish pigmentation of skin; and enhanced kapha might result in albinism.

3. Constitutional (Doshabalapravritta)

*Arise out of any dietary or behavioural disturbance brought about by an imbalance in any one of the three vital physical energies (Tridoshas) or the three vital mental energies (Trigunas).
*Thus constitutional disorders are of two types : somatic (Sharirika) & psychic (Manasika).

4. Traumatic (Sanghatabalapravritta)

Undergoing any trauma causing experience – external or internal – leads to this.
*External trauma is induced by injuries inflicted by sharp instruments and bites of animals or venomous insects.
*Stress and overstrain lead to internal trauma.

5. Seasonal (Klabalapravritta)

*Brought about by changes in the nuances of seasonality.
*Sometimes the body fails to adjust itself to the sudden and abnormal climatic changes – extreme cold might lead to frostbite and rheumatic disease. While extreme heat may cause sunstroke or fever.

6. Infectious and Spiritual (Daivabalapravritta)

*Either born out of natural calamities as lightning, earthquakes, floods and the invisible, malignant forces of nature.
*Or contacted through sexual & physical intimacy and sharing of food, plates, bed, clothes, towels and cosmetics with effected friends & relatives.
*Or as a result of sheer jealousy.

7. Natural (Swabhavbalapravritta)

Even the healthiest of people are struck by hunger, thirst, sleep, death or senility.
*Brought about by functional, organic and natural changes in the body.

In Ayurveda, physicians try to assess the symptoms of these diseases as much as the nature of ailment and its root causes (nidana). This is of utmost importance in ensuring correct choice of remedial & preventive measures for treatment of the disease. For otherwise, even after therapy, one might not get the desired response and there would remain a chance of recurrence.

The early signs and symptoms (purvaroopa) provide useful warnings and the opportunity for taking necessary action before a disease can assume dangerous magnitudes. The main signs and symptoms (roopa) reflect the true nature and intensity of the disease. Another oft used method of diagnosis is exploratory therapy (upasaya) which uses diet, medicines and routines to detect diseases otherwise difficult to diagnose. Acting either against the cause of disease or the disease itself or producing relief. For example a swelling that is alleviated by an oily & hot massage, is obviously caused by an imbalance of vata.

Examination Process

To confirm, evaluate and treat a disease, physicians need to perform clinical examinations of patients – wherein textual knowledge (aptopadesa), direct perception (pratyaksha) and inference (anumana) are all very important components. The examination of patients can be carried out in the following manners:

Three (Tri) fold (Bidha) Examination (Pariksha)

Covers a general examination of the patient.


1. Visual observation (Darshan)
2. Tactile perception (Sparsha)
3. Questioning (Prashna)



Ayurveda has eight parts called as "Ashtangas" in Sanskrit. ("Ashta" means eight; "anga" means part). These eight parts of Ayurveda deal with different subjects. They are as follows:
Kaya chikitsa:
Internal and external treatments for the body.
Bala chikitsa:
Diseases related to infants.
Graha chikitsa:
Healing of psychological problems.
Urdvanga chikitsa:
Treatments related to the head region.
Salya chikitsa:
Surgeries and operations.
Visha chikitsa:
The science of detoxification.
Rasayana prakarana:
Methods to rejuvenate the saptadhatus.
Science of aphrodisiacs.

1. Kaya chikitsa:
"Kaya" means body, "chikitsa" means treatment. In Kayachikitsa, treatment is given to the body, both externally and internally. Kayachikitsa can be done by Panchakarma (which means "five methods"). These methods are: Vaman, Virechan, Basti, Nasy and Rakta moksha.Pachakarma includes three phases: Poorva karma, Pradhan Karma, Pashchat Karma. Along with this Panchakarma some other procedures like Shirodahra, Shirobasti, Katibhsati and Sarwangdhara can be used to heal the whole body.
In Kayachikitsa, the detection of disease includes the following basic principles according to Sootra sthana ("Sootra" means principles, "sthana" means part. Sootra sthana means "part with principles of Ayurveda"):
Nadi sodhana [testing of nadi]
Functionality of organs
Vata, Pitta and Kapha doshas
Intensity of the disease and strength of the patient
Disease and its symptoms
Then the disease can be cured by selecting a proper medicine. That medicine may come from any of the following and also as combination:
Oshadi [herbs]
Rasa [mercury etc]
Uparasa [includes bone, hair etc]
Kara [potassium nitras etc]
Sara [ammonium chloride]
Stavara [poisons]
Jangama [poisons]
Pashana [arsenic compounds]
Loha [metals]
Kayachikitsa also includes Kayakalpa, which means rejuvenation of body.

2. Bala chikitsa [Pediatrics]:
It contains "Balaroga prakarana" which means the description about diseases of infants. This part of Ayurveda includes diseases related to infants like "Grahani" [motions], Vantibedhi [vomiting], Jvara [fevers], Graha chikitsa [psychological imbalances].In this part, there are so many methods of fumigations [dhoopa chikitsa] to cure viral infections. Curing of these viral infections is called as Bhoota chikitsa.

3. Graha chikitsa [Psychiatry / Bhutavidya]:
This part of Ayurveda includes healing of psychological problems. The healing of psychological imbalances can be cured by different methods. They are as follows:
Dhoopa chikitsa [Fumigation]
Mantra [by chanting some sacred syllables]
Tantra [Using specific herbs]
Yantra [Sacred symbols]
The description about the herbs for this treatment was given in "GrahaVidya dravya".

4. Urdvanga chikitsa [Shalakya tantra / Salakhaya]:
This part of Ayurveda includes treatment of head [neck, eye, nose, and teeth]. The disease related to those upper parts can be detected by following the principles of "Sootra sthana".

5. Salya chikitsa [Surgery]:
"Susruta" is the father of Surgery. He was the first surgeon who did an eye operation successfully. He used surgical instruments made up of stone and wood. Usage of his instruments is still obscure for modern surgeons. This salya chikitsa includes operation of tumors, bone fractures, internal obstructions, removing foreign substances from body. It may also include operations that ease the delivery in critical conditions.

6. Visha chikitsa [Science of Detoxification]:
This part of Ayurveda includes detoxification methods. It is also called as "Agada tantra". The accumulation of poisons and toxins takes place in the body due to:
Secretions of bacteria, fungi, viruses
Junk food
Bites of insects and snakes
Bad habits like smoking and consumption of alcohol
7. Rasayana prakarana [Jara chikitsa]:
This part includes different methods to rejuvenate the saptadhatus [seven constituent elements] of the body and to increase ojas. In this part "Kuti pravesa" is a method which is useful for preventing the symptoms of old age.Better sex, long life can be attained through this part of Ayurveda.

8. Vajeekarana [Science of Aphrodisiacs]:
"Vajee" means Horse, "Karanam" means to follow. Vajeekarana means a combination of herbs which gives the sexual capability that is equal to that one of a horse. It develops "Sukra dhatu". This part also cures problems like impotency and infertility to some extent. These medicines also develop and strengthen Saptadhatus


  Pancha Mahabhutas refer to the five sense organs. These are the means through which we perceive the external world. They are the eyes, ears, nose, skin and tongue.

According to Ayurvedic principles, the Pancha Mahabhutas also help us to absorb the perceived external objects into our bodies as various forms of energy.


Just as Physics and Chemistry differentiate the matters in universe into several basically different elements, so also Ayurveda classifies these elements into the Mahabhutas.

Based on the five senses (Pancha Mahabhutas), Ayurveda classifies the entire universe into five groups. The Pancha Mahabhutas of the universe are christened according to their basic qualities as Akasha; Vayu; Agni; Jala; and Prithvi.

The five Mahabhutas also constitute the food and drug ingredients. The respective qualities are realized by the senses in terms of Rasa (taste); Guna (quality); Virjya (potency); and Vipaka (the taste following metabolism and consequent digestion processes).


Mentionably, the literal translations of these terms in English do not at all connote the exact nature (qualities) of the Mahabhutas. For instance, the transliteration of Akasha; Vayu; Agni; Jala; and Prithvi are the sky; air; fire and water. But, each one of the Mahabhutas means much more then the English representations. So, it would be a folly and a misnomer to deem the original Sanskritised connotations of the Mahabhutas as parallel to the English terms.

Take, for example, Jala Mahabhuta. The only characteristic feature of Jala Mahabhuta akin to water is the force of cohesion (attraction). Over and above this, Jala Mahabhuta includes also the other Mahabhuta qualities as well.

In the same way, Vayu Mahabhuta contains not just air but also elements of the other Mahabhutas.

On the other hand, though scientifically each molecule of water is made up of two atoms of Hydrogen and one of Oxygen; yet according to the Ayurvedic principles, hydrogen is identified with Jala Mahabhuta while oxygen with Agni Mahabhuta.


Technically, every single atom of the human body as well as the outside universe is made up of the five Mahabhutas.

Scientifically an atom is composed of various elements like neutrons, positrons and electrons.

As per the Ayurvedic principles, these elements building up each atom is constituted by the typical attributes of the five Mahabhutas.

The aforementioned different elements constituting the atom are representative of Prithvi Mahabhuta.

The manner in which these elements as well as the atoms stay attracted to each other denote the characteristic feature of Jala Mahabhuta.

An atom is a reservoir of energy. When an atom is broken up, it also produces energy. This potential power of an atom as well as the energy latent in the unbroken atom is Agni Mahabhuta.

The force with which the electrons move, represent the primary characteristic of Vayuv Mahabhuta; while the space in which the atomic constituents travel is the main identity of Akasha Mahabhuta.


Ayurvedic principles state that the five Mahabhutas constitute the human physique. They can be mentally mapped as the 2Ds and 1M. The '2Ds' are the 'Dosha' and the 'Dhatu' while the single 'M' is the 'Mala'.


The 2Ds and 1M are found within the human body in a particular equilibrium. This ratio is maintained naturally by the body. If any shortage occurs in the actual ratio of any of the (or all the) 2Ds and 1M, the body instantly replenishes it (them) from its buffer stock. Suppose there is a shortage in the reservoir as well, then the required amount of the 2Ds and 1M is refurbished from several extraneous factors like sunlight, heat, air, water and food items that we consume.

What happens when the equilibrium in the ratio of 2Ds and 1M gets disturbed due excess deposit or accumulation of the Doshas, Dhatus and Malas? In such situations, the body purges or eliminates the excess amount instinctively.

It is when the body fails to accomplish the refurbishing and elimination mission, the physique becomes weak -- generally or partially. Enzymatic action is to be blamed for this disorder. Then, we get affected by various types of illnesses.


The Mahabhutas play a pivotal role even in the death of a person. The five Bhutas have two forms which can be identified as 'Subtle' and 'Gross'.

The body functions normally when the 'Subtle' Bhutas can impregnate the five senses without any hindrance.

Death occurs when the 'Subtle' Bhutas cannot impregnate the five senses naturally.

Ayurvedic principles say that the impregnation process happens five times. Even after the five attempts, if the impregnation process fails the 'Subtle' Bhutas detach themselves from the five senses. It is during this juncture that the body loses the sense organs; the body then doesn't respond to any stimuli. This stage is termed 'Death'.

The dead body is then composed of only the 'Gross' Mahabhutas.


The Pancha Mahabhutas theory has been variously explained by the different philosophical schools. Many explanations converge as to the basic concept whereas a few have offered divergently different concepts.

Nonetheless, each one of the theistic philosophical camps agrees with their compatriots in one respect. That common ground of unanimity is one of the basic Ayurvedic principles that the Pancha Mahabhutas constitute the universe.

Mention may be made of the Charvaka atheist school of thought; it does not believe in anything that is not perceptible through the naked eye. Hence, it does not accept the fifth Mahabhuta – Akasha (the space wherein the atomic constituents move around)


A body tissue is known in Ayurveda as the Dhatu. The meaning of the term Sapta is seven.

A tissue, in simple terms, is a bonding cord. It ties together the body parts and also the different parts with one another to constitute a comprehensive whole.

There are seven Dhatus. These are:

1. Rasa (or Chyle) : Includes the lymph;
2. Rakta : Encompasses blood (primarily the haemoglobin);
3. Mamsa : Includes the muscle tissues;
4. Meda : Refers to the fat tissues;
5. Asthi : Points to the bone marrow;
6. Shukra : Denotes sperms in males and ova in females.


Each of the Sapta Dhatus is formed of the five Mahabhutas.

These Dhatus remain in equilibrium in the body of a healthy person. Any change in their actual correct proportion leads to various ailments.

The following list mentions just the predominant dhatu in a particular set of tissues.

Here are the instances:

The fat and muscle tissues are composed of the Prithvi Mahabhuta.

The lymph tissues are formed of the Jala Mahabhuta.

Haemoglobin (in blood) is made up of the Tejas Mahabhuta.

Bones are constituted of the Vayu Mahabhuta whereas the bone pores are built by the Akasha Mahabhuta.

Virechana Medicine / Drugs

 Bhaishajiya KalpanaVirechana Medicine / Drugs

In ayurveda text the Virechan (purgative) medicine or drugs are defined as that category of drugs / medicines which passes out the waste products of Gastro Intestinal tract through anus. These are called adhakaya Sanshodhanam (lower part cleansers) or virechan drugs. These drugs are used for purgative and laxative purpose.Haritaki (Terminalia chebula) - 8oz pwd

The virechan drugs generally are Ushna (hot), teekshna (acute/ fast acting), Sukshma (micro) Vavyayi (Airy) and Vikashi (acting without digesting) properties and have tendency to remove the stools from anus. The virechan drugs are herbal as well as organo-metallic preparations.

The authors of Charka Samhita, Susruta Samhita and Ashtaang samgraha have classified them as phalniya (Flowering), moolniya (root part), Samanyagana, and Sanshodhanam gana.

 Following are the major classification of virechan drugs –

    * Mula Virechak (the virechan drugs that are derived form the root part): -Shyma, trivrata, snuhi, chitrak, apamarga and kusha.

    * Twaka Virechak (the virechan drugs that are derived form Bark based): - patla and tilwak.

    * Ksheer Virechak (the virechan drugs that are derived form milk or sap): - Snuhi arka and saptachada ksheer.

    * Phala Virechak (the virechan drugs that are derived form Fruit based): - Paritiki, amalaki and Bhibhataki

    * Patra Virechak (the virechan drugs that are derived form Leaf based): - Chatrangul and Putik.

    * Phal rajavirechak (the virechan drugs that are derived form fruit content based): - Kampillaka.

In classical ayurvedic texts, the virechan drugs are classified under different names and categories. Generally they are called virechan drugs. Apart from this Charka Samhita named these drugs as Virechanopaga (those causing virechan), and Bhedniyagana (those breaking stools). The Susruta Samhita termed the virechan drugs as Adhokaya Sanshodhanam gana and Vagbhata called them as Virechangana. After compiling all the virechan drugs and medicines we can generally find following virechan drugs under different medicaments and single drugs.

    * Virechanopaga: - Draksha, Gambhari, paritaki, amalki, Bhibhatiki, Badibadar, Chhoti mithi badar, Karkadhu and Pilar.

    * Bhedniya Gana: -Nishotha, arand, arka, Kalihari, chitrak, karanj, shankhini, katuki, and swarnaksheeri.

There are oil based Virechan drugs/medicines known as taila(Oil based): - Of this category the most widely used castor oil is described as errand (castor), Jatiphala oil, dantibeej oil, jaitun (olive) oil. In Ashtaang samgraha, milk and urine are also taken into Virechan drugs.

According to modern sciences we can divide these all virechan drugs into two categories only as: -

    * Acute (fast acting) and purgative
    * Mild laxative.

But in ayurveda a very deep classification of this category drugs in mentioned these are based upon the season based virechan drugs body physique based, action based and on the basis of physiological actions on body.

Virechan is of three types: -

Mridu (mild), Madhya (normal), and teekshna (Acute / fast)

On this basis the virechan drugs are used and these are further more classified on the basis of physiological actions as: -

    * Anulomana (laxatives).
    * Sansarana (mild purgatives)
    * Bhedana (purgative but acting slowly)
    * Virechan (Fast acting purgative)

Ayurveda also defines the virechan drugs on the basis of season. There are different drugs used in the different season. These are classified into season-based medicines as: -

Gresham kalam virechan (The virechan that is done in summer)

Varsha Virechanam (The virechan that is done in rainy season).

It means that drugs that are used for the virechan process in Gresham (summer) and varsha (Rainy) season respectively.

From Bhaishajiya Kalpana point the medicaments and medicines can be better understood as follows: -

    * Amuloman (Laxatives): -

Ayurveda describes the drugs that relieve the stools in a mild way as Anulomana. They are mridu (mild) virechan drugs. The virechanopaga drugs by charka and following listed drugs are laxative medicine.

    * Apple, peach, tamarind, guava, banana, rose flowers, husk, patol patra, the oil based laxatives beside these milk, sugarcane, mulhati, phalsa, kushmanda swarasa.

Generally all laxatives are madhur Rasa and amla Rasa based. These drugs have tendency to loosen the feces by producing a lot of water a stimulating the peristaltic movement of intestine and removing out the excreta by loosing and softening it.

Sansaran (Mild – Purgatives): - This category drugs have tendency to remove out the excreta from G.I. tract even without getting it digested. Amaltas is one of these drugs. These drugs act in a fast manner. The composition of these drugs generally is of water and earth components.

The following single drugs are used as the sansran medicines: -

    * Amaltas,
    * Snaya,
    * Aleo Vera,
    * Kampillak,
    * Gorochen,
    * Revandchini,
    * Amlika,
    * Amlavetas,
    * Suranjan,
    * Shewata
    * Nishotha,
    * Bilbaphala,
    * Gulkanda,
    * Aprajita,
    * Trifala,
    * Kalmegha,
    * Varun,
    * Ghrita,
    * Hot milk.

Draksharishtha and Abhyarishtha are the classical examples of fermentative preparations of asava and aristha that are used as virechan medicines.

The Leha (confectionary based preparation) medicament based preparations that are used, as virechan medicines are - Amaltas avalehika, Trivritavaleha.

Rasnadi Quath is the example of decoction based virechan medicine. Further more the jam like preparation is Gulkanda that is prepared by rose petals and sugar.
These two categories are included in laxatives.


Antacids in Ayurveda

  Antacids in Ayurveda

The antacids are drugs that have pharmacological property to relieve hyperacidity caused due to indigestion and heartburn by neutralizing stomach acid. The complication of hyperacidity occurs due to the reflux of hydrochloric acid occurs in stomach during the process of digestion. This hydro-choric acid with other enzymes is necessary for the digestion process. This process of digestion is controlled by the hormonal function of gastrin and somatostatin that induces the secretion and suppression of hydro choleric acid respectively.

This is normal physiological process of digestion but when it gets interrupted either by hormonal imbalance or mechanical disorder, it develops the complication of hyperacidity. This is characterized by following symptoms. The very primary symptom of hyperacidity is feeling of bitter taste in mouth and increased saliva. After wards it is developed to heartburn, nausea, belching, and often stomach cramps are occurs. There is pain in the upper abdominal region (epigastric). Headache and giddiness is also present in some patients. The heartburn increases while the patient lies in bed. This is one of the most uncomfortable symptoms of hyperacidity. Pregnant women also suffer from this complication.

In advance stages, the complications can be caused in the form of ulcers. Some times several mouth ulcers that can range from oral cavity to the esophagus characterize it. This is generally due to the increased secretion of hydrochloric acid.

Ayurveda describes this condition as amlapitta. It is considered to be a disease caused due to aggravation pitta. The sign and symptoms described in ayurvedic texts are very similar to that of modern sciences. This root cause of this disease is as follows.

 The main cause is irregular dietary habits, indigestion, the excessive intake of spicy, heavy and fried food, disturbed sleep and stress, hormonal imbalance of gastrin and somatostatin and loss of appetite. There are certain other causes like alcohol, smoking there could be a mechanical disorder responsible for this disease.

The esophageal sphincter helps to separate wind pipe from food pipe. Some times it may be loose and thus the acid produced is refluxed with the food or alone. This is also a reason behind hyperacidity. Generally we can classify the root causes for hyperacidity as improper life style and dietary habits like fried spicy food alcohol. The physiological conditions like pregnancy, mechanical disorder like the malfunctioning of esophageal sphincter, Hormonal imbalance.

Ayurveda states that the elevated pitta is responsible for this disease. When the pitta get mixed with the rasa dhatu and enters the annavaha strota (digestive tract) then this disease happens. Basic line of treatment in ayurveda and modern science is quit different in other words opposite to each other. The antacid category drugs from the allopathic side are said to be contain acid neutralization agents as well as Central nervous system depressant. The antacids are generally containing the aluminum and magnesium salts.

Alginic acid is also used for this purpose. Alginic acid is responsible to make a foamy forth into the stomach by reacting with the saliva to control the acid reflux. These antacids are having side effects of constipation and abdominal pain, nausea and giddiness sometimes.

However the antacids are among the one of the most widely used medicine all over the world and about 1/3 rd of Americans and other world population. In India about 35% of the population is suffering with this disease. This is a life style problem and those who are addicted with tobacco, alcohol as well as excess of packaged food with rich salt content can easily caught by this disease. The ayurvedic line of treatment is just opposite to that of the modern sciences. The basic principle of treating this disease is virechan karma (the removal of undigested food as well as bile by purgative drugs).

The basic line of treatment is the same in allopathic and ayurveda. That is life style modification to avoid the food stuff that causes the hyperacidity. According to Ayurveda, over exposure to heat should be avoidable in this disease. But the second stage of treatment that is drug based is quite different as the drugs in ayurveda are purgatives that have got the tendency to remove out the pitta. But the allopathic drugs are acting upon the acids to neutralize it as well as they stop the secretion of the gastric juices. Again the allopathic side has got the surgical intervention in the chronic stages of hyperacidity that is either endoscopic anti reflux measure or the gastro esophageal surgery to prevent the reflux of acid.

The side effects of allopathic drugs used in hyperacidity are headache, abdominal pain, and indigestion. As far as the ayurvedic drugs are concerned the single drugs used as antacid are Amaltas, Amalaki (ambilica offecinalis), Haritaki (Chebulic myrobalan), Turmeric, aloe vera, pippali, shatavari, madhuyashti and in general all drugs that have property of tikta and madhur rasa and snigdha guru are suppose to be antacidic in nature. They have vata pitta shamak property. The patoladi gana herbs patol, chandana, murva, gaduchi, patha, are also used as pittashamak. The herb shatavari has got good result in the treatment of this disease. It is also used in ayurveda for treating amlapitta. The diet preparations used for treating this disease are generally containing the above category drugs. The yavagu (liquid diet preparation) used for treatment are prepared by using the above drugs as well as the 4 purgative category drugs (see virechan drugs in ayurveda) to control hyperacidity by performing virechan. In early stages the use of deepan (appetizers), pachan (digestives) are useful.
In ayurveda the mineral preparations are also used for the treatment of this disease. Pravaal pishti like drugs that are rich in calcium salts are very much effective in treating the hyper-acidic conditions. Apart from that several medicines from ayurveda to treat this disease are multi drug combinations. Like avapittikar choorna, Madhuyastyadi Choorna and mineral based like abhraka bhasma, shankha bhasma, confectionary preparation like dhatri rasayana and the mercuric preparations like Kamdudha Rasa, Sutsakher rasa, and more are used in the treatment of hyperacidity. The recent studies show that the Shatavari herb has effects like metaclopramide (ant emetic drug).  this has been stated by ayurveda thousands of years ago.

Anti-inflammatory drugs in Ayurveda

  Anti-inflammatory drugs in Ayurveda    

The anti-inflammatory drugs are used to reduce inflammation. The process of inflammation is a natural phenomenon of combating the exertion due to mechanical and traumatic impact. There are certain conditions that are responsible for inflammatory conditions. In the process of inflammation the white blood cells of body combat the foreign particles so as to protect the body. This aggregation of chemicals and increased blood supply make that particular area swollen and temperature rise is noticed. This process results in inflammation and also causes pain..

Generally inflammation is taken as the symptom of any other disease. These conditions are arthritis, tendonitis, nephritic syndrome, hepatic complications, traumatic conditions and some times it may be caused due to fever, fatigue, stress and muscular stiffness. Many times the inflammatory conditions may present a sign of a severe systemic aliment like in nephritis, renal failure or hypertension. In myocarditis there  be may swelling in legs, in the same way the colitis may cause diarrhea and cramps.

In modern system of medicines, the method to treat inflammation are drug based, physiotherapeutic procedures, as well as removing the cause by means of surgery. The basic treatment is decided as per the condition of the patient and causes of the inflammation.. Generally the line of treatment is symptomatic, so as to reduce the pain, and remove the cause of disease.

The following are the signs of inflammation -

-Pain (dolor)

-Heat (calor)

-Redness (rubor)

-Swelling (tumor)

-Loss of function (functio laesa).

Pain may not be a primary symptom of the inflammatory disease, since many organs do not have many pain-sensitive nerves. Treatment of organ inflammation is directed at the cause of inflammation whenever possible.

The inflammatory conditions can be divided into following types-

Acute inflammation, is the sudden onset, marked by the classical signs in which vascular and exudative processes predominate.

Catarrhal inflammation is a form affecting mainly a mucous surface, marked by a copious discharge of mucus and epithelial tissues. For this type of inflammation, nasya (inhalation) in case of common cold and flu based inflammatory conditions is very effective.

Chronic inflammation is prolonged and persistent, marked chiefly by new connective tissue formation; it may be a continuation of an acute form or a prolonged low-grade form.

Exudative inflammation is that type of inflammation, which has severe exudation. For this type of condition the cold procedures like Parisheka are very useful.

Granulomatous inflammation a form, usually chronic, marked by granuloma formation.

Interstitial inflammation is that type of inflammation, which is affecting the stroma of an organ.

Parenchymatous inflammation is that one affecting chiefly the essential tissue elements of an organ.

Proliferous inflammation are that types of inflammation that has got severe proliferation in the affected organ or tissue system. There are various ways in Ayurveda to treat it as per the condition of patient like dhoopan (fumigation) up to raktavisravan (draining of contaminated blood)

Pseudomembranous inflammation is an acute inflammatory response to a powerful necrotizing toxin, e.g., diphtheria toxin, with formation, on a mucosal surface, of a false membrane composed of precipitated fibrin, necrotic epithelium, and inflammatory white cells. Doing medication for the root cause treats this type of inflammation.

Purulent inflammation is superlative in nature. For this type of inflammation Ayurveda suggests the use of Shoshanna drugs.

Serous inflammation is that type of inflammation, which produces a serous exudate.

Sub acute inflammation is a condition intermediate between chronic and acute inflammation, exhibiting some of the characteristics of each.

Superlative inflammation is that type of inflammation that is marked by pus formation. For this type of inflammation the Upnaah preparations along with the Shoshanna drugs is used according to Ayurveda.

Ulcerative inflammation is that type of inflammation in which necrosis on or near the surface leads to loss of tissue and creation of a local defect (ulcer). There are vartis (long shaped pills) and swab of ghrita (jatidyatadi) used to treat such ulcers and reduce inflammation.

Following categories of drugs are used as anti-inflammatory medicines in modern system of medicines.

    * Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) – such as aspirin, ibuprofen or naproxen),
    * Corticosteroids (such as prednisone)
    * Anti-malarial medications (such as hydroxychloroquine). There are certain other medicines that are used for treating inflammation like methotrexate, sulfasalazine, leflunomide, anti-TNF medications, cyclophosphamide and mycophenolate .

In Ayurveda the process of inflammation is known as “shopha”. This is generally because of the contaminated Vata entity. And Kapha and Pitta are engaged in this. The sign and symptoms are differentiated upon the acuteness of signs relating to Vata, Pitta, and Kapha. The basic line of treatment for shopha is of shanshamana and Shodhanam. The patient is treated by local application of medicines as well as parental therapy of Vata and vednashamaka (painkillers) drugs.

All type of inflammations described above are described as sign and symptoms of shopha and its divisions. Different medicaments and drugs depending upon the patient conditions treat the shopha. For this purpose the Pralepa, Swedan, Pind swedan, Upnaah, varieties of diet preparations are used along with medicines.

The procedures followed by Ayurveda are as per the need of patient and the degree of inflammation with the sign and symptoms.

Vimlpana, Abhyanga, Swedan, Parishechan, Tadan, and lepan, are physiotherapeutic measures followed for the treatment of pain /inflammation in Ayurveda.

Apart from this the use of hot treatment is also prevailing from ages in Ayurveda to treat inflammation. The Ushnasweda, Pradeha, Avagahan, and Parisheka are used to treat the pain and inflammation. Apart from this cold treatment is also used that is Parisheka, Pradeha, Avagahan, and Lepa are used to treat inflammation and pain. The drugs and medicines used for treating inflammation in Ayurveda are generally containing Vata shamak property.

There are certain diuretics like Gokshur, Punarnava, Pahsnabheda, which are used to control the localized swelling due to nephritic syndrome.

These are called as shopha hara drugs in Ayurveda. The following medicines are used as anti-inflammatory drugs.

    * Agnimanth,
    * Bilba,
    * Brihti,
    * Gokshur.
    * Kant Kari,
    * Kashmarya,
    * Nirgundi,
    * Patala,
    * Prishnaparni,
    * Shalparni, and
    * Shyonaka,

Apart from these certain medicinal herbs that are containing volatile oils are also used as anti-inflammatory drugs.

Normally Rasna -erandadi Kwath, Shigru Varun Kwath, Gomutrarka, Kansa Haritaki, Shoth Kalanal Ras, Grihdhoomadi Lepa, Kokilakshak kashaya, sandhi shool har gugglu, ahiphena, Kokilakshak kashaya are used as medicines for inflammation along with the diet preparations as per symptomatic need of the patient.

Antibacterial drugs in Ayurveda

Antibacterial drugs in Ayurveda
The anti bacterial agents and drugs are of the most important inventions in medical field. As we know that the antibiotics are used to fight any type of infections that are due to bacteria. The antibiotics are the base for the improvement and development of the surgery part of allopathic medicines. There are various medicated liquids and powders derived form minerals as well as the herbs for this purpose in ayurveda. In the surgical text Susruta there are various medicines and processes that are used for postoperative treatment.

Thought, ayurveda don't describe any thing about the antibiotic drugs but they were quite aware of the after effects that may occur due to the microbes. Thus various processes and drugs were used for the antibiotic purpose. Without this the surgical part of Ayurveda wouldn’t have flourished. Thus we can imagine that that unknowingly the ayurveda people were using the precautions against the microbial growth.

The medicated decoctions that were used in the postoperative treatment by Maharishi Susruta was of antibacterial nature. In the same way the treatment for leprosy is also indicative of the antibacterial properties of the herbs and ayurvedic medicines used. Nowadays the antibiotics are classified into various categories. The major success of the modern medicines is dependent upon the antibiotics invention. Each antibiotic is used to treat specific bacteria. In simple words that acts as antidote for the specific bacteria. The treatment is based upon the diagnosis of the microorganism causing infection.

The penicillin was the first antibiotic that was discovered in 1928 by Sir Alexander Fleming for treating the infectious caused in wounds. Further, antibiotics were refined from the penicillin and by the 1950’s a large number of antibiotics were discovered. There are a large number of antibacterial combinations that are used now days. The antibiotics can be classified upon the basis of their chemical composition as well as their mechanism of pharmacological action. Following are the some antibiotics commonly used by the practitioners.

The antibiotic medicines used commonly are B-lactam antibiotics– this group contains, Penicillins (Penicillin G, Amoxicillin, Flucloxacillin) Cephalosporins (Cefoxitin, Cefotaxime) and Carbapenem (Imipenem) and their combinations.

The other group is Macrolides that contains Erythromycin, Azithromycin and Clarithromycin. There is another group of tetracyclins, Fluoroquinolones, Sulphonomides, Aminoglycosides, Imidazoles, Peptides, and Lincosamides

The above mentioned antibiotics are used generally in all systemic aliments caused due to the bacterial activities. The ayurvedic medicines that are used in treating the infectious conditions are generally containing antibacterial activities. For example the Cindamycin antibiotic is used for the treatment of the serious respiratory tract infections, serious skin infections and soft tissue infections.

For the serious respiratory tract infection there are ayurvedic medicines that are containing the herbs and mineral combinations as well. The rason (garlic) is found to have effects as that of Cindamycin). In the same way the combination medicine Sitopaladi Choorna is having anti tubercular action due the presence of certain drugs. Cinnamon, In the same the various combination and single drugs from the ayurveda texts are containing various antibiotic properties and are in use in spite of being the known how they work.

The most famous of all as antibacterial drug from ayurveda is Neem. The herbs, which were used by Susruta for the antibiotic activity, are classified into different categories of drugs.

    * Saalsaradi gana
    * Lakshadi gana ,and more…….

The following medicines are described into above categories.

Extract of Saal, Ajakarna, Khadir, Odumbar, Supari, Bhurjapatra, Meshshringi, Tinish, Shewata Chandan, Shisham, Asan, Dhava, Arjun, Laksha, Aragvadha, Kutza, Ashvamaartawak, katphala, haridra, Nimba, Malti, Trayamana, Chukramarda, Vasa, Gaduchi, Madanphal, Vidanga, Lashun, Shrish, Jatamansi, Guggul Harenu, Vacha, Trivrita, Danti, Gairik, Anjan, Bhallatak, Lodhra, Devdaru, Sarshap, Kampillak, Arka-ksheer, Rasanjana, Kaptiharasa, Indravajava, Palshrasa, Rasana.

Apart from these, there are various mineral preparations that are used for the antibacterial purpose. Some of these are Makshiaka, Gandhakayoga, Parad, Shilajit, Tutthak, Kashish, Manashila, Gairik, Anjanam, Gorochan, Suhaga, and Nilgiri tel.

The madhavasava, khadirarishta, mahatikta ghrita, pancha nimbadi ghrita are some other medicines that are used as antibiotic medicines in case of infections according to ayurveda. The neem is most commonly termed as ayurvedic antibiotic. The neem tree is used in a number of ways as per the disease conditions. It has got multipurpose use from skin rashes to malaria. In the Harotkayadi varga section of drug book of ayurveda priyanighantu neem is described a great medicine for the pitta aggravations and blood purification. Neem is supposed to be a antibacterial, anti-fungal, antiviral and antiseptic drug. It used in treating anything from dandruff to acne, eczema to malaria and cold sores.

All ayurvedic medicines are used in many systemic aliments and they need to be developed and tested as per the antibiotics are tested. The use of herbs and different medical decoctions can be added with the antibiotics as complementary to the medicines. Now days various single herbs are being researched in the light of modern testing parameters to establish their respective antibiotic action on different category of microbes. The haridra is used as antibiotic for skin disease for local and parental uses. In the same way there are various uses of herbs in ayurveda related text.

Antipyretic drugs in ayurveda

Antipyretic drugs in ayurvedaAyurvedic Mint Powder 7oz

The antipyretic drugs are used for the purpose of reducing the body temperature and then maintain it to normal. It is the category of medicine that prevents feverish conditions as well as lower downs the body temperature from raised stage to normal condition. The antipyretics commonly don’t effect in the healthy state means don’t disturb the temperature regulation in healthy state. According to modern sciences antipyretic medicines are non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) that generally act by inhibiting prostaglandin synthesize within the hypothalamus region that acts a temperature regulator in our body.

The fever is the state of the body where the body temperature reaches higher then the normal body temperature. This normal body temperature in an individual is taken on as 98.4-degree feranhite or 37 degree Celsius. The thermometer is used to measures this temperature orally, in arm pit or in rectum. Fever is caused by many factors.

It can occur independently or as symptom of any disease. Fever is generally due to the pathological impact of the microbes as well as the traumatic and several other reasons. The complex biochemical syntheses of the interleukin as well as the other substances like prostaglandins are the responsible factors for the hyperpyrexia. These biochemical are released due to the pathological invasion and complex reaction of the pathogens that affects the central nervous system resulting in fever.

This temperature regulation process is governed by various systems. That involves the central nervous system and the circulatory system. In the state of fever the bodily symptoms are commonly the same as the rise in temperature, some times shivering, in acute stages the delirium as well as the unconsciousness is also there.

The fever is the also described as symptom another disease. In various diseases fever is present as symptom. Like typhoid, rheumatic disease and more. In ayurveda related old classics the fever is described in details and is termed as “Jwara”. It is divided into several types and subdivisions according to the dosha theory and other pathological principles of ayurveda. The basic principle of treating the pyrexia is to reduce the body temperature by certain procedure and drugs. The antipyretics described in ayurveda can be broadly classified into following types-

    * Antipyretics and,
    * Analgesic and diaphoretics.

According to ayurveda the basic line of treatment for fever involves the elimination of the root cause that is aggravates the body temperature. The swedavrodha (stopped sweating) is the main cause that increases the body temperature. The process of langhanam (fasting) and paachan (using appetizers and digestive stimulants) are also described as basic line of treatment of the patient suffering from fever. There are different medicines and drugs that are used as antipyretic. Apart from that there are several therapeutic measures that are used to lower down the body temperature of the body.

The action of antipyretic drugs occurs in following ways.

    * They act by reducing the activity of the hypothalamus.
    * They act by increasing the heat radiating speed of body.
    * They increase the sweating activity.
    * The procedures that are used to lower down the temperature.
    * The antipyretics describes in the ayurveda classics are-

Jwaraghana gana (antipyretic category)

Following are some of the main drugs from the ayurveda references that are used as jwaraghana. They are –Sariva, Sharkarapataha, Manjishta, Draksha, Peelu, Parushaka, Abhya, Amla, Bhibhitaki, Patola, Shewats chandan, Rakta chandan, Moorva, Gaduchi, Patha, Katuki, Nimba, Dhaniya, Padmakha, Amaltas, Madan phala, Karanj, Kalmegha, Saptaparna, Kaarvellak, Vatsanabh, Dhatura, Atis, Droon pushpi, Sahdevi, Arka and Karvir,

The mineral based drugs that are used as antipyretic are-

Pkitkari, Narsaar, Godanti, Neelanjana, Sankhiya, Hartaal, Manashila, Praval, Kaparda, Shankha, Qunine,

The all drugs mentioned above are used according to the patient’s specific need and the dosha involved or the kind of fever. Besides these there are several combination medicines that are used as antipyretic in ayurveda. The following medicines are used as antipyretic. Commonly following medicines are used in the different types of fever.

In navajwara (acute fever)- Tribhuvan Kiriti Rasa, Sanjivani Vati and Godanti Mishrana are given.

In Visamajwara (Malarial fever) - Saptaparna ghana Vati and Sudarshana Choorna are given.

In Vat shlaishmika jwara (Viral fever) - Laksmi Vilas Rasa and Samsamani Vati are given.

In Jirna jwara (Chronic fever) - Pratap Lankeshvar Ras, Mahasudarsana Choorna and Amritarishta are given.

In Sannipatika jwara (Typhoid fever) - Nardiya luxmi Vilas Rasa and Bhunimbadi Kwath are given.

Apart from these the medicines used as antipyretic as per the dosha classification are-

Mrituyanjaya rasa, trailokyasundar rasa, hinguleshvarrasa, panchavaktra rasa, amritashtaka kashaya rasa and Panchatikta kashaya

The medicinal decoctions of Shaobhanjan, Aranda, Shewata Punarnava, Yava, and Kulatha are used as antipyretic. There are mineral combinations that are used as antipyretic medicines. They are-Kasturi Bhairava Rasa, Naracha-Rasa, Tarun-Jwarari Rasa, Prataap-Martanda Rasa, Chintamani Rasa, and Mritansanjavinai Rasa.

Ayurveda describes the various diet preparations of antipyretic medicines. The procedures involve the dripping and embrocating the cold temperament drugs as well as the fumigation. Ayurveda also describes fever that is caused due to mental conditions like fear and shock.

It is also seen that the religious rituals are also described into the classical texts of ayurveda. However the tikta rasa pradhan (bitter taste medicines) are very much useful in the feverish conditions. The Anupaan concept of ayurveda (vehicle concept for medicine) is very useful in treatment of fever. The Shadangpaaniya combination (see different forms of medicines) is found to be very useful in reducing the aftereffects of the quinine based antipyretics. The have the tendency to treat side effects of the antipyretic.

The following five medicines are having antipyretic effect. They are used in various forms like decoctions, powder, pills, diet preparations, and more. These are Guduchi (tinaspora cardifolia), Sunthi (zingiber officinalis), Vacha (Aarus calamus), Yashti-madhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra), Musta (Cyprus rotundus).

The medicinal procedures that are used for the antipyretic purpose are also used by the modern medicine system like the cold process. The basti preparations are found to be useful in the chronic fever condition.


Various Choorna” (Powder)

   1. Aladi Choorna
   2. Alumbushadya Choorna
   3. Avapittikar Choorna
   4. Baladi Choorna
   5. Brihalavangyada Choorna
   6. Briham Nayika Choorna
   7. Brihma agnimukha Choorna
   8. Brihta Gandadhar Choorna
   9. Chandanadi Choorna
  10. Chanyadi Choorna
  11. Gaduchayadi Choorna
  12. Gokshuradya Choorna
  13. Grahni Shardul Choorna
  14. Haridudi Choorna
  15. Hingvashtaka Choorna
  16. Hingnadhya Choorna
  17. Hingvadi Choorna
  18. Hingvadi Choorna
  19. Jatiphalachurna Choorna
  20. Jeerakadhya Choorna
  21. Jwarbhairava Choorna
  22. Jwarnag mayur Choorna
  23. Kapithashtaka Choorna
  24. Lavano Hamadi Choorna
  25. Lavargadi Choorna
  26. Madhaya Lavangyadya Choorna
  27. Madhaya Nayika Choorna
  28. Madhya Gangadhar Choorna
  29. Madhyam Nayika Choorna
  30. Mahalavangyada Choorna
  31. Marichadya Choorna
  32. Markendya Choorna
  33. Nagradhaya Choorna
  34. Naracha Choorna
  35. Narayan Choorna
  36. Narsimha Choorna
  37. Nimbadi Choorna
  38. Paarsiyaadi Choorna
  39. Panchanimbadi Choorna
  40. Pathadhaya Choorna
  41. Pathadi Choorna
  42. Pathayadi Choorna
  43. Phalatrikadi Choorna
  44. Pipplayadhya Choorna
  45. Punarnanadi Choorna
  46. Pushyanuga Choorna
  47. Rahitakadya Choorna
  48. Rasnadi Choorna
  49. Rasanyanadi Choorna
  50. Saindha Vadya Choorna
  51. Sama Sharkara Choorna
  52. Samsharkara Choorna
  53. Saraswat Choorna
  54. Shatpushpadya Choorna
  55. Shothari Choorna
  56. Shringyadi Choorna
  57. Sudarshan Choorna
  58. Sunthayadi Choorna
  59. Swalpa agnimukha Choorna
  60. Swalpa Gandadhar Choorna
  61. Swalplavgangadhyar Choorna
  62. Swalpnayika Choorna
  63. Talishadya Choorna
  64. Triushnayad Choorna
  65. Uridha Gangadhar Choorna
  66. Usheeraadi Choorna
  67. Utpala daya Choorna
  68. Vadnamukha Choorna
  69. Vaishvaanar Choorna
  70. Vijaya Choorna
  71. Vriddharaka Choorna
  72. Vyashadi Choorna
  73. Vyoshadya Choorna
  74. Yamanikadi Choorna
   1. Ajapanchak Ghrita
   2. Amritada Ghrita
   3. Amritaprasha Ghrita
   4. Arjun Ghrita
   5. Ashoka Ghrita
   6. Ashta Changal Ghrita
   7. Ashtapala Ghrita
   8. Ashwagandhada Ghrita
   9. Balada Ghrita
  10. Balagarbha Ghrita
  11. Balchargeri Ghrita
  12. Bhadravaha Ghrita
  13. Bhadrot Kotada Ghrita
  14. Bhallatakada Ghrita
  15. Bhringraj Ghrita
  16. Bhunimabadi Ghrita
  17. Bilbadi Ghrita
  18. Bramhi Ghrita
  19. Brihaddanti Ghrita
  20. Chagalada Ghrita
  21. Changeri Ghrita
  22. Chavyada Ghrita
  23. Chitrak Pippli Ghrita
  24. Chitrakada Ghrita
  25. Dadimada Ghrita
  26. Dhatri Ghrita
  27. Dhatri Shatapalak Ghrita
  28. Doshmulada Ghrita
  29. Drakshada Ghrita
  30. Durvada Ghrita
  31. Godhumada Ghrita
  32. Habushada Ghrita
  33. Haridra Ghrita
  34. Hingvada Ghrita
  35. Jeerakada Ghrita
  36. Kadalyadi Ghrita
  37. Kalyan Ghrita
  38. Kandev Ghrita
  39. Kantkari Ghrita
  40. Karangada Ghrita
  41. Ksheer Kalyan Ghrita
  42. Kum Kumada Ghrita
  43. Kumar Kalpdrum Ghrita
  44. Kumar Kalyan Ghrita
  45. Kushada Ghrita
  46. Kutzada Ghrita
  47. Lashunada Ghrita
  48. Mahachaitas Ghrita
  49. Mahakhadir Ghrita
  50. Mahakindu Ghrita
  51. Manak Ghrita
  52. Marichada Ghrita
  53. Murvada Ghrita
  54. nagabala Ghrita
  55. Nagar Ghrita
  56. Naracha Ghrita
  57. Narayan Ghrita
  58. Nayograde Ghrita
  59. Nripavallabha Ghrita
  60. Padmakada Ghrita
  61. Paishik Ghrita
  62. Pala Ghrita
  63. Panchagavya Ghrita
  64. Panchapalak Ghrita
  65. Panchatikta Ghrita
  66. Parashar Ghrita
  67. Pashanda Ghrita
  68. Patolada Ghrita
  69. Phala Kalyan Ghrita
  70. Pippali Ghrita
  71. Pnurnavada Ghrita
  72. Rohitaka Ghrita
  73. Saurashawar Ghrita
  74. Shashakada Ghrita
  75. Shatapushpada Ghrita
  76. Shatavari Ghrita
  77. Shiva Ghrita
  78. Shringberada Ghrita
  79. Shringiguda Ghrita
  80. Sitkalyan Ghrita
  81. Soma Ghrita
  82. Sthirada Ghrita
  83. Sunthi Ghrita
  84. Sunthi Ghrita
  85. Trayamanda Ghrita
  86. Triphalada Ghrita
  87. Trikantakada Ghrita
  88. Trivritadi Ghrita
  89. Vallabha Ghrita
  90. Varunadi Ghrita
  91. Vidangada Ghrita
  92. Vidari Ghrita
  93. Vishvavallabha Ghrita
  94. Vyagrhi Ghrita
  95. Vyoshada Ghrita

  List of Avaleha
Confectionary based medicines

   1. Agyastharitaki
   2. Aprajita Leha
   3. Bhargyadi Leha
   4. Bhradi Kadi Leha
   5. Brihadvasavleha
   6. Brinta Kushmandavaleha
   7. Chitrakadi Leha
   8. Chitrakadi Leha
   9. Devadaryadi Leha
  10. Drakshadi Leha
  11. Drakshadi Leha
  12. Duhsparshadi Leha
  13. Duralabhadi Leha
  14. Haritaki Leha
  15. Jeevatyadi Leha
  16. Kant Karyavalcha
  17. Khand Kushmandavaleha
  18. Kharjuradi Leha
  19. Kulzaleha
  20. Madhukadhavaleha
  21. Mustakadi Leha
  22. Nidigidhakavebleha
  23. Padmakadi Leha
  24. Pathyadi Leha
  25. Pippalyadi Leha
  26. Pipplyadi Leha
  27. Pipplyadi Leha
  28. Pipplyadi Leha
  29. Pipplyadi Leha
  30. Punarnanadileha
  31. Sarivadhavleha
  32. Sharkaradi Leha
  33. Shringtikachi Leha
  34. Sitopaladileha
  35. Twakgadi Leha
  36. Vasavaleha
  37. Vidangadi Leha
  38. Vishaladi Leha
  39. Vyagrhi Haritaki

            Various Medicated Oils in ayurveda

   1. Adityapak Guduchi Taila
   2. Agaardhoomda Taila
   3. Amritadi Taila
   4. Angarak Taila
   5. Aragvadhada Taila
   6. Aragvodhada Taila
   7. Ashtakatvar Taila
   8. Ashwagandha Taila
   9. Bakulada Taila
  10. Bhallatakada Taila
  11. Bhringaraj Taila
  12. Bimpadi Taila
  13. Brihnamaricha Taila
  14. Brihtasomraji Taila
  15. Chandanada Taila
  16. Chandanadya Taila
  17. Chandanadya Taila
  18. Chitrak Taila
  19. Dashmula Taila
  20. Deepika Taila
  21. Dhastur Taila
  22. Dhastur Taila
  23. Dwiharidra Taila
  24. Gaduchi Taila
  25. Gandarvhahasta Taila
  26. Gandha Taila
  27. Gauradaya Taila
  28. Grahanimihir Taila
  29. Gunjadya Taila
  30. Hamsapadi Taila
  31. Himsagar Taila
  32. Jati Kadya Taila
  33. Jawarbhairav Taila
  34. Kanak Taila
  35. Kandarpsar Taila
  36. Kankumada Taila
  37. Karvirada Taila
  38. Kashishadi Taila
  39. Krishanasarpa Taila
  40. Kritiktaadi Taila
  41. Kukjaprasarni Taila
  42. Kumari Taila
  43. Kumbhikadya Tailal
  44. Kushada Taila
  45. Kushtha Raksha Taila
  46. Lakshaadi Taila
  47. Lakshadi Taila
  48. Lashunada Taila
  49. Laxmivilas Taila
  50. Madhayam Gaduchi Taila
  51. Mahabala Taila
  52. Mahabhringaraj Taila
  53. Mahadashmula Taila
  54. Mahakanka Taila
  55. Mahalakshadi Taila
  56. Mahamasha Taila
  57. Mahanarayan Taila
  58. Mahaneel Taila
  59. Mahapinda Taila
  60. Maharaj Prasarni Taila
  61. Maharudra Taila
  62. Mahasahachar Taila
  63. Manjishtada Taila
  64. Marichada Taila
  65. Mashabaladi Taila
  66. Mulkadha Taila
  67. Mushikadi Taila
  68. Nakul Taila
  69. Narasthi Taila
  70. Narayan Taila
  71. Nirgundi Taila
  72. Nishada Taila
  73. Nripa Vallabha Taila
  74. Palan Kashaya Taila
  75. Patali Taila
  76. Pathada Taila
  77. Pipplyadi Taila
  78. Pramehamihir Taila
  79. Prasarvi Taila
  80. Punarnavada Taila
  81. Pushparaj Prasarni Taila
  82. Rasonada Taila
  83. Saindhawa Taila
  84. Samudra Soshan Taila
  85. Shadabindu Taila
  86. Shadabindu Taila
  87. Shailayada Taila
  88. Shakotaka Taila
  89. Shambuk Taila
  90. Shewata Karvisada Taila
  91. Shilodibhidadi Taila
  92. Shiva Taila
  93. Shivtra Pnachanan Taila
  94. Shri Gopal Taila
  95. Shriparni Taila
  96. Siddartha Taila
  97. Sindooradi Taila
  98. Somraji Taila
  99. Sothashardool Taila
 100. Sukshamulada Taila
 101. Sutika Dashmula Taila
 102. Swarjikada Taila
 103. Taptaraj Taila
 104. Taptaraj Taila
 105. Triphaladi Taila
 106. Tumbi Taila
 107. Unmatta Taila
 108. Upodika Kshaar Taila
 109. Vasataru Taila
 110. Vidanga Taila
 111. Vidangadi Taila
 112. Vijayabhairava Taila
 113. Vipritmalla Taila
 114. Visha Taila
 115. Visha Tinduk Taila
 116. Vishnu Taila
 117. Vishyandan Taila
 118. Vyoshadya Taila



          Risks associated with being too underweight -

    * Complications in surgery and slow recovery after illnesses.
    * Greater tendency to vattika diseases,
    * Impaired immunity,
    * Bone/joint problems,
    * Anemia etc.

It is important to see that the weight you want to gain should be equally distributed all over the body, and not only around your waist

Following are some of the guidelines for gaining weight -

    * To gain weight, eat food with extremely high caloric value.
    * Try to increase your food intake without consuming too much fat and sugar.
    * Regular meals, especially breakfast, are important if you find it difficult to gain weight.
    * Eat Late - Having snacks at bedtime may help to gain weight.
    * Relax after having meal.
    * Eat Frequently- Eat five or more meals a day.
    * Do regular exercise.

Recommended Ayurvedic preparations -

    * Chyavanprash: Chyavanprash is a comprehensive herbal tonic.This magic elixir is good for all, irrespective of age and gender, and creates a harmonious synergy in the body leading to better metabolism. It bring back strength in a fragile body
    * Shatavari Kalpa: It is good for eyes, muscles, reproductive organs, increases body weight and helps to regain vigour and vitality.
    * Makardhwaj Gold: It is Rasayana and excellent Tonic.
    * Vasant kusumakar rasa: Excellent tonic for rejuvanation of body,It improves immmunity, power and tones up all the systems of the body.


From modern point of view the general indication about the times for medicinal intake are reserved up to hourly, quarterly intervals or after a day and frequent medication. In the case of medical emergencies repetitive and frequent medication as well as hospitalization is prescribed.

In ayurveda there are various times mentioned for taking medicines. There are 10 specific time durations that are indicated for medicinal intake according to Susruta.

    * Abhakta (Before meals just after rising up in the morning)
    * Pragbhakta (Just before taking the meals)
    * Adhobhakta (Just after the meals)
    * Madhaya Bhakta (In between the meals)
    * Antrabhakta (Between two meals)
    * Sabhakta (with meals / cooked with needs)
    * Samudga (between light diet and meals)
    * Muhurmuha (with or without meals and given frequently)
    * Sagrasa (mixed with meals)
    * Grasantar (between two gulps of meals)

Apart from these 10 time durations Vagbhata add “Naish” (just before sleep or going to bed). Following are the main times described for medicine intake.

Time for taking medicine:-

All these time durations are related with the disease specific way of taking meals because the medicaments at the time of Charka and others were much dependent upon meals. As the processing of medicine advanced at the time of sharangdhar the aushdhai sevan kaal (medicine intake time) were reduced from 10 times into 5times, which are as follow: -

    * At suryodaya (Sunrise i.e. empty stomach)
    * At lunch times (by mid day meals)
    * At evening times (with supper)
    * Frequent and continuous as in emergency
    * At bed times before sleep

This is because of that the medicament at times of Susruta & Charka are much depending upon food / diet. And at times of Sharangdhar the long processed medicaments came in existence thus the time duration was relaxed. But a major point to be kept in consideration is that the times of medicinal intake by Susruta are disease specific and can be very much useful in supplementary diet therapy for a variety of symptoms. As we will see that for different diseases different medication times is stated along with the way of taking it with meals.

Abhakta: - (Before meals empty stomach often sunrise)-

All the kashaya Category medicine (containing Kashaya Rasa) must be taken at this time, for diseases due to elevated pitta & kapha dosha, for Vaman (Emesis) and Virechan (Stomach wash) purpose this time is most suitable.

But as far as children, females aged, ones, and diabetic patients are concerned after given medicine at said time a light diet must be given.

Pragbhakta (medicines taken just before meals)

The purpose of such type of medication is to make sure that the medicine is readily absorbed and digested fast. The chances of medicine being emitted are comparatively less. This type is best suitable for children females; old aged persons and those who are afraid of taking medicine. The medicines acting on decreasing obesity and in Apaan Vayu Vikar (disease in Upper Gastro Intestinal tract) are best effective when taken as above indication i.e. pragbhakta medication.

A general tip for digestion is pragbhakta medication as by taking salt and ginger pieces before meals.

Adhobhakta: - (Just after meals)

Medicines taken just after meals are known to be adhobhakta. All the medicines taken Adhobhakta are tend to increase obesity. Generally adhobhakta medication is meant in Kaphaja Vyadhi (diseases due to elevated kapha). In Vyan Vayu Vikar (For disease due to Vyanvaya i.e. Upper Respiratory Tract related complications/symptoms Adhobhakta medication is useful.

In the same manner in Udan Vaya Vikar the evening time Adhobhakta medicines are prescribed. It means medication after meals at morning and evening or lunch & dinner respectively.

This can be researched easily by making a group of 10 patients with same sign symptoms and of 5 the said type of medication process be applied upon and not for the other 5 than we can observe that whatever stated in this concept is useful.

Mhadhaybhakta: - (Medicines that are taken after half of the meal and than the rest meals are taken).

This specific medication time is set for medicines used in saman vayu vikaar (diseases due to saman Vayu or complete general pathto-physiological signs & symptoms). This medication is useful in treating Koshthagata (stomach and related organs) and body parts other than extremities and Head, Neck & brain based related complications and pitta vikara (diseases due to pitta/bile).

Antrabhakta: - (Medicines taken in between two meals / or after digestion of meal).

Such medication time is after 4 to six hour of meals as the meals are digested and then medicine is taken. These types of medicines are deepan (Appetizer) and pathya (digestive).

Sabhakta: - (Cooked with meals).

If medicines are added with the cooked food then it is called sabhakta. This is used to give medicine to children, females and those who hate to take medicines. The yavagu, vilepi and other diet preparations are good example of this type of medicine.

Samudoga: -

The medicine that is taken between light diet and complemented with full diet. After taking a brunch the medicine is given and then full diet is taken. This type of medicine practice is useful in convulsions, tremors and related sign symptoms.

Muhurmuha: - (Repetitive medication).

As in medical emergencies frequent medication is done. In the same way in Asthmatic conditions, poisoning, vomiting, thirst and bronchial aggression repetitive medication is indicated in ayurveda text as muhurmuha.

Sagraas: - (with gulp of food).

Any medicine when taken with one and more gulps of food is called sagraas. This medication is useful in diseases related with pran vayu (Upper Respiratory Tract & thoracic Cavity complications). Appetizers, Aphrodisiacs, are taken in the above manner.

Graasantar: - (Between two continuous gulps of food).

This medication idea is very much useful in Cardiac diseases and Asthmatic conditions. The avaleha used in swasa (Asthma) are best useful when taken in this manner.

Naish: - (Medications to be taken in might).

Vagbhata described this medication time. All those medicines taken before going to bed are called Naish. All mild purgatives and laxatives are given in the indicated manner.

All the time durations are very much interesting and can easily be researched upon by forming small groups on relative symptoms bearing patients. The use of medication for cardiac disease is much useful as it may be added to supplementary diet planning.

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